Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), as promising clean energy conversion devices, can directly convert the chemical energy of fuels to electricity with high efficiency (40%-60%) and low emission. The proton exchange membranes (PEMs) is the key part of PEMFCs for promoting proton transfer. Traditional PEMs such as Nafion membranes cannot meet the operation requirements (e.g. conductivity of 0.1S/cm at 120 °C by US Department of Energy, 2020 target). In order to meet this criterion, one of the promising approaches to boost the insufficient proton conductivity of existing PEMs is to incorporate functional fillers into the proton-conductive membranes as the nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes.
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